Noma References

Adeola DS, Obiadazie AC. Protocol for managing acute cancrum oris in children: An experience in five cases. Afr J Paediatr Surg 2009;6:77-81.

Baratti-Mayer D, Pittet B, Montandon D, Bolivar I, Bornand JE, Hugonnet S, et al. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology. The Lancet infectious diseases. 2003 Jul;3(7):419-31.

Barmes DE, Enwonwu CO, Leclercq MH, Bourgeois D, Falkler WA. The need for action against oro-facial gangrene (noma). Trop Med Int Health. 1997 Dec;2(12):1111-4.

Bolivar I, Whiteson K, Stadelmann B, Baratti-Mayer D, Gizard Y, et al. (2012) Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(3): e1556. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001556

Bos K, Marck K. The surgical treatment of noma. Uitgerverij Belvedere/Medidact: 2006.

Bourgeois DM, Leclercq MH. The World Health Organization initiative on noma. Oral diseases. 1999 Apr;5(2):172-4.

Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA, Idigbe EO. Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2000;11(2):159-71.

Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA, Jr., Idigbe EO, Afolabi BM, Ibrahim M, Onwujekwe D, et al. Pathogenesis of cancrum oris (noma): confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Feb;60(2):223-32.

Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA, Jr., Idigbe EO, Savage KO. Noma (cancrum oris): questions and answers. Oral diseases. 1999 Apr;5(2):144-

Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA, Jr., Phillips RS. Noma (cancrum oris). Lancet. 2006 Jul 8;368(9530):147-56.

Enwonwu CO, Phillips RS, Ferrell CD. Temporal relationship between the occurrence of fresh noma and the timing of linear growth retardation in Nigerian children. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jan;10(1):65-7

Enwonwu CO. Noma--the ulcer of extreme poverty. The New England journal of medicine. 2006 Jan 19;354(3):221-4.

Joseph JE, Lewin MR, Mensh B. A Case and Review of Noma. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, December 2010; 4(12) e869.

Marck K. Noma the face of poverty. MIT-Verlag GmbH: 2003.

Marck KW, de Bruijn HP. Surgical treatment of noma. Oral diseases. 1999 Apr;5(2):167-71.

Ogbureke KU, Ogbureke EI. Noma: A preventable “Scourge” of African Children. The Open Dentistry Journal, 2010: 4: 201-206.

Phillips RS, Enwonwu CO, Falkler WA. Pro-versus anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in African children with acute oro-facial noma. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 2005; 16 (1): 70-7.

Srour ML, Watt B, Phengdy B, et al. Noma in Laos: Stigma of severe poverty in rural Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 78(4): p. 539-542.

Woon CY, Sng KE, Tan BK et al. Case report Journey of a Noma Face. Open Access Journal of Plastic Surgery 2010; 10: 412-418.

Ziegler J. Requests addressed to the Advisory Committee stemming from Human Rights Council Resolutions: Right to Food “The Tragedy of Noma. Human Rights Council Advisory Committee. August 2009. Available from: